More sources of waste water appear, posing challenges for management agencies

The volume of domestic waste water continues to rise, especially in populous areas, challenging management agencies.

According to the National Environment Report 2013-2017, which only took into account some major sources of waste water (domestic and industrial waste water, waste water from healthcare and service facilities, craft villages and livestock units), the total discharged waste water by 2017 had reached 100 million cubic meters per day.

More sources of waste water appear, posing challenges for management agencies

The Red River Delta and the eastern part of the southern region have the biggest waste water volumes, especially Hanoi and HCMC.

The former made up 37 percent and the latter 54 percent of the total waste water volume in their regions. In rural areas, the impact of domestic wastewater on the quality of receiving sources is less than in urban areas. However, the situation is getting worse with many ponds, lakes and canals affected by serious pollution.

As of March 2017, Vietnam had 13,394 healthcare facilities, including 1,253 hospitals, 1,037 prevention units and 11,104 medical stations. The healthcare centers with beds alone produce 150,000 cubic meters of waste water a day.

As of March 2017, Vietnam had 13,394 healthcare facilities, including 1,253 hospitals, 1,037 prevention units and 11,104 medical stations. The healthcare centers with beds alone produce 150,000 cubic meters of waste water a day.

WHO estimated that one small- and medium-scale hospital discharges 200-500 liters of waste water per head per day, while large-scale hospitals discharge 400-700 liters. However, the real volume of waste water collected still depends on the quality of collection systems.

The industrial waste water volume depends on the industry development in localities. The figures are 143,000 cubic meters per day in HCMC, 137,000 cubic meters in Binh Duong, 75,000 in Hanoi and 65,000 in Bac NInh.

Polluted water sources have harmed the aquatic environment. A report of the General Directorate of Environment showed that most canals, rivers and lakes in inner cities have become polluted. In many urban areas, lakes have become waste water containers, and mass fish deaths at Hoang Cau and West Lakes no longer surprise people.

 

Mining, pulp production, tanning, steel manufacturing, sugar and medicine production cause the most serious pollution.

Four provinces in the central coastal provinces saw mass fish deaths several years ago because of the waste water from the Formosa steel manufacturing complex.

Cam Dan River in Bac Giang province became polluted because of the waste water from A Cuong Mining JSC.

Fish died en masse on Buoi River in Thanh Hoa because of waste water from Hoa Binh Sugar refinery. Representatives of Hoa Binh Sugar Company had to meet fishermen in Buoi River fishing village to give VND1.4 billion in compensation though there was no official conclusion from official agencies.

The waste water from mining may contain mud, surfactants and heavy metals, which are major causes behind pollution, cancer and neurotoxicity.

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