Ancient Chinese books say Hoang Sa, Truong Sa belong to Vietnam

Many ancient Chinese bibliographies, recorded by the Chinese themselves, directly or indirectly, recognize Vietnam’s sovereignty over the two archipelagos of Hoang Sa (Paracel Islands) and Truong Sa (Spratly Islands).

VietNamNet would like to introduce some content in the book "Chu quyen quoc gia Viet Nam tai hai quan dao Hoang Sa va Truong Sa” (Vietnamese sovereignty over the Paracel and Spratly Islands) by Assoc. Prof. Dr. Truong Minh Duc.

Ancient Chinese books say Hoang Sa, Truong Sa belong to Vietnam

The map originated from 1136 shows the southernmost territory of China is Hai Nan Island

According to Chinese history, in 218 BC, Qin Shi Huang tried to conquer the south and in 214 BC invaded Van Lang - Au Lac (Vietnam). The struggle of the people of Van Lang - Au Lac lasted from 214-208 BC and ended with success.

This fight took place only in the North of the Red River basin of Van Lang - Au Lac territory. Therefore, the Qin army could not set foot in the southern part of the Red River, so they could not cross the sea to reach Hoang Sa and Truong Sa in the middle of the sea.

When the Han replaced the Qin Dynasty and proceeded to expand the land towards the South, it captured three Viet countries (Dong Viet, Man Viet and Nam Viet), but the Western Han Dinasty had no power at all in the sea area of below 20o North.

Hoang Sa belongs to Giao Chau

"Giao Chau di vat chi" - A book about strange things in Jiaozhou (the name of Vietnam today) - (Yang Fu, Eastern Han dynasty, 25-220 AD) including unusual things about foreign countries, mentioned the name of a land called Zhanghai.

Many ancient Chinese bibliographies, recorded by the Chinese themselves, directly or indirectly, recognize Vietnam’s sovereignty over the two archipelagos of Hoang Sa (Paracel) and Truong Sa (Spratly).

In the age of Three Kingdoms (220-265), Wan Zhen wrote the book "Nam Chau di vat chi" (A book about strange things in Nanzhou) described the rock and sand islands on the East Sea. The book recorded the "strange" things he found in foreign countries, not strange things in China.

In the 785-805 period of the Tang Dynasty, there was a book by Gia Dam (Gaobie Daba) about the things he saw on the sea route from Guangzhou to Malabar and it did not mention the Paracel and Spratly Islands.

Also in Tang Dynasty, the book "Duong thu nghe van chi" mentioned  the book "Giao Chau di vat chi" by Yang Fu which recorded strange things and strange places in Giao Chau (Vietnam). The book wrote that That Chau Duong (Hoang Sa Islands) was the place of many magnetic stones, and it was impossible for foreign boats with iron bolts to pass through.

This once again affirms that Hoang Sa Islands belonged to Giao Chau in the past, or Vietnam in modern times.

Another book in the Song dynasty said the border of Chinese territory with other countries was in Tonkin Gulf, while Hoang Sa and Truong Sa are hundreds of miles away from the Tonkin Gulf to the south.

Thus, ancient Chinese bibliographies in the Song dynasty all show that the Paracel and Spratly Islands did not belong to China but to another country, which China called Giao Chau (Jiaozhou) or Giao Chi (Jiaozhi) 

The southernmost territory of China is Hai Nan Island

 
Ancient Chinese books say Hoang Sa, Truong Sa belong to Vietnam
A page in Thich Dai San's "Overseas memoir" recalls the trip to Dang Trong, acknowledging the sovereignty of Dai Viet (Vietnam today) over the Hoang Sa and Truong Sa archipelagoes.

In the 12th century, a historian of the Song Dynasty named Zhao Nengkua in his book "Chư phiên chí" (a book about ancient China's tributaries) confirmed many important historical events from the Han Dynasty. Accordingly, in 111 BC, Han Wu De sent troops across the sea to occupy the enemy's land (Nam Viet) and set two districts named Chau Nhai (Yázhōu Qū) and Dam Nhi (Huafei Tuerqi) (Hainan island today).

The book also wrote that Wànlǐ cháng shā (Hoang Sa Islands) was a dangerous place where Chinese boats should not come close to. "Chư phiên chí", the title of the book, means stories about foreign countries. Hoang Sa, in the book, was not located in China, but in Nam Viet. As such, the Chinese southernmost territory in the Han dynasty was in Hainan Island.

In "Dư địa đồ đời Nguyên" (Maps of the Yuan Dynasty) by Chudou, which was resized in a map book entitled "Quang du do" by La Hongtian released in 1561, Hainan Island was once again defined as the southernmost Chinese territory.

In the Ming Dynasty, in Mao Yuan Yi's "Vu Bi Chi" book, the East Sea was called Jiaozhi sea. Other maps drawn by a Chinese navigator of this time, named Tè lín hé who traveled through the East Sea to explore the Indian Ocean did not mention Hoang Sa and Truong Sa.

In the Qing Dynasty, in the book "Hải ngoại ký sự" (Overseas records) released in 1696, a monk of the Kangxi dynasty who came to Thuan Hoa land of Vietnam's Lord Nguyen in 1695 mentioned the location of Hoang Sa, writing that Hoang Sa was a 7-day trip from Dai Viet, about 700 miles away.

A page of the book narrated the trip to Dang Trong (Dang Trong was a de facto independent kingdom ruled by the Nguyen lords), acknowledging the sovereignty of the two archipelagos of Hoang Sa and Truong Sa of Dai Viet.

This is a recognition of Dai Viet's sovereignty in the control and exploitation of the East Sea, where the Hoang Sa and Truong Sa Islands are located, because the book is written by Chinese about what they saw overseas, not in China.

In the 19th century, a Chinese book entitled "Hải quốc đồ ký" by Wu Pingnan described Hoang Sa as a sand strip in the sea used as a fence that shields the outer side of An Nam (Vietnam). As such, the document acknowleged that Hoang Sa Islands belonged to Vietnamese territory.

In the case of the fishermen of Hainan Island robbing a wrecked ship carrying copper in the Hoang Sa Islands in 1895-1896, responding to an appeal letter from the British government, the Viceroy of the Two Guangs (Guangdong and Guangxi) stated that Hoang Sa had no relation to China.

As such, ancient Chinese documents all show that Hoang Sa (Paracel) and Truong Sa (Spratly) (China calls Xisha and Nansha) have been discovered and used for many centuries peacefully and continually by the Vietnamese, without any protest from any countries, including China.

In the book "China's medieval history" released in 1978 in Taipei by the Chinese Academy of Science, scholar Hsieh Chiao-Min commented that throughout its history, in cultural and scientific development, the Chinese people have not been keen on the ocean. 

Truong Minh Duc

History records prove Vietnam’s sovereignty over Hoang Sa, Truong Sa

History records prove Vietnam’s sovereignty over Hoang Sa, Truong Sa

Hoang Sa (Paracel) and Truong Sa (Spratly) are two big archipelagos with key strategic locations among Vietnam’s islands, and the country’s sovereignty over them is clearly reflected through historical documents.

China's illegal claims in the East Sea threaten integrity of UNCLOS

China's illegal claims in the East Sea threaten integrity of UNCLOS

Behind China's violations is the intention to control the East Sea through promoting maritime claims that are completely contrary to the provisions of the 1982 UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS).   

 
 

Other News

.
Note verbale 'warfare' debated at East Sea conference in Hanoi
Note verbale 'warfare' debated at East Sea conference in Hanoi
MARITIME SOVEREIGNTYicon  21/11/2020 

Experts believe that smaller countries can collectively and peacefully address disputes through note verbales.

International conference discusses co-operation in East Sea in time of turbulence
International conference discusses co-operation in East Sea in time of turbulence
MARITIME SOVEREIGNTYicon  17/11/2020 

One of the bright spots in the East Sea tension this year is that many countries have clarified their legal stance in the sea through diplomatic notes exchanged at the UN, said Dr Pham Lan Dung, acting director of the Diplomatic Academy of Vietnam.

Greater efforts needed for a peaceful, stable and prosperous East Sea: experts
Greater efforts needed for a peaceful, stable and prosperous East Sea: experts
MARITIME SOVEREIGNTYicon  17/11/2020 

The disputes in the East Sea need to be resolved by the concerned parties, with cooperation of the international community as well as the region, said a Vietnamese expert.

12th East Sea International Conference opens
12th East Sea International Conference opens
MARITIME SOVEREIGNTYicon  17/11/2020 

The 12th East Sea International Conference, with the theme “Maintaining Peace and Cooperation through a Time of Turbulence”, kicked off on November 16 in both the in-person and online formats.

Joint patrols help maintain security in East Sea
Joint patrols help maintain security in East Sea
MARITIME SOVEREIGNTYicon  17/11/2020 

Many international maritime routes pass through the East Sea, making it the world’s second-busiest shipping lane in terms of commercial activities, after the Mediterranean. 

East Sea issues must be resolved peacefully, constructively: Malaysian PM
East Sea issues must be resolved peacefully, constructively: Malaysian PM
MARITIME SOVEREIGNTYicon  13/11/2020 

Malaysia is firm with its stance that matters relating to the East Sea (known as the South China Sea internationally) must be resolved peacefully and constructively, Prime Minister Muhyiddin Yassin said on November 12.

China’s Coast Guard bill: ‘a test’ for the new US President
China’s Coast Guard bill: ‘a test’ for the new US President
MARITIME SOVEREIGNTYicon  13/11/2020 

While the world focused on the US presidential election, tensions in the East Sea have not been relieved as provocative actions from Beijing continued.

Chinese technology firm found inserting illegal nine-dash line on app
Chinese technology firm found inserting illegal nine-dash line on app
MARITIME SOVEREIGNTYicon  12/11/2020 

Vietnamese netizens have reported the violation to Google and Apple.

Philippines affirms stance on peaceful settlement of East Sea issue
Philippines affirms stance on peaceful settlement of East Sea issue
MARITIME SOVEREIGNTYicon  13/11/2020 

President of the Philippines Rodrigo Duterte called for stepping up the adoption of a Code of Conduct in the East Sea (COC) while addressing the 37th ASEAN Summit via a teleconference on November 12.

Foreign ministers reiterate ASEAN’s resolve to resume East Sea negotiations
Foreign ministers reiterate ASEAN’s resolve to resume East Sea negotiations
MARITIME SOVEREIGNTYicon  11/11/2020 

ASEAN foreign ministers reiterated the bloc's resolve to resume negotiations on a code of conduct in the East Sea with China during the 22nd ASEAN Political-Security Community (APSC) Council Meeting held online on Tuesday.

East Sea disputes should be solved based on international laws: Ukrainian scholars
East Sea disputes should be solved based on international laws: Ukrainian scholars
MARITIME SOVEREIGNTYicon  09/11/2020 

Over 20 Ukrainian scholars, experts and lawyers have participated in a round table discussion on jurisdiction at disputed areas in Black Sea, Sea of Azov and East Sea at the press centre of the Ukrainian Independent Information Agency (UNIAN).

Vietnam backs peaceful settlement of maritime disputes
Vietnam backs peaceful settlement of maritime disputes
MARITIME SOVEREIGNTYicon  06/11/2020 

The country always supports the peaceful settlement of territorial disputes on the basis of respect for international law, including the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS).

The East Sea and the new US President’s choice
The East Sea and the new US President’s choice
FEATUREicon  04/11/2020 

Many Americans went to the polls early to elect a new President and the results of the 2020 US presidential election will have great implications for the world geopolitical situation.

China changes sovereignty claim in the East Sea: hope or illusion?
China changes sovereignty claim in the East Sea: hope or illusion?
MARITIME SOVEREIGNTYicon  04/11/2020 

“This is the time for China to give up the 9-dash line. This does not affect their interests,” said Dr. Li Nan, a research fellow at the East Asian Institute, National University of Singapore, at a recent online seminar on the East Sea.

Vietnam protests establishment of so-called Sansha city
Vietnam protests establishment of so-called Sansha city
MARITIME SOVEREIGNTYicon  15/10/2020 

Vietnam strongly protests the establishment of the so-called Sansha city in Phu Lam Island in Vietnam’s Hoang Sa archipelago and related activities as they seriously violate Vietnam’s sovereignty, Foreign Ministry spokesperson Le Thi Thu Hang said.

Code of Conduct in the East Sea: a long and arduous road
Code of Conduct in the East Sea: a long and arduous road
MARITIME SOVEREIGNTYicon  08/10/2020 

During the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF) on September 12, the ASEAN Foreign Ministers once again called for the early completion of the Code of Conduct in the East Sea (COC). But obstacles remain.

Vietnam wants resumption of talks on East Sea code
Vietnam wants resumption of talks on East Sea code
MARITIME SOVEREIGNTYicon  02/10/2020 

Vietnam wants code of conduct (COC) negotiations for parties in the East Sea between Southeast Asian nations and China to resume soon, after months of disruption caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, a spokesperson has said.

China reacts to France, UK and Germany’s note verbales on East Sea
China reacts to France, UK and Germany’s note verbales on East Sea
MARITIME SOVEREIGNTYicon  25/09/2020 

China is still looking for new arguments to refute the Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA)’s ruling in 2016. The legal battle in the East Sea is not over yet.

China changes its 'wolf warrior' diplomacy
China changes its 'wolf warrior' diplomacy
FEATUREicon  27/09/2020 

China has shifted from a 'wolf warrior' diplomacy to calling for the implementation of three points on dialogue, cooperation and dispute control, as Politburo member Yang Jiechi and Foreign Minister Wang Yi said recently. They are:

Note Verbales of France, UK, Germany and the legal war in the East Sea
Note Verbales of France, UK, Germany and the legal war in the East Sea
MARITIME SOVEREIGNTYicon  20/09/2020 

France, the United Kingdom and Germany have submitted note verbales expressing their views against the seven notes the Chinese mission had proposed for circulation at the United Nations. 

 
 
 
Leave your comment on an article

OR QUICK LOGIN