Development in coastal areas causing marine pollution
Vietnam has 28/63 coastal provinces/cities
Oil and gas exploitation, maritime and aquaculture activities have been developing strongly, putting pressure on the environment, maritime sources and ecosystem.
Waste from coastal residential activities
Coastal residential activities generate many types of waste which goes to the sea through rivers and canals. The volume of waste is particularly high in coastal urban areas.
Maritime activities are enormous polluting sources. The waste water from vessels contains high concentrations of mineral oil, cleaning chemicals and heavy metals which seriously threaten the quality of sea water.
Ha Thanh Bien from the Vietnam Sea and Islands Administration cited a report as saying that in the Hai Phong – Quang Ninh seaport complex alone, with 400 ships going abroad every month, the volume of ballast water discharged is estimated at 430,000-710,000 cubic meters.
Vietnam has 28 out of 63 coastal cities/provinces, where 43.51 million people reside, and the population density is 1.9 times higher than the average density of the country.
In 2008, the volume of waste water containing oil from 394 vessels docked at Hai Phong City reached 4,578 tons.
Since 1989, Vietnam has witnessed more than 100 oil spill cases due to marine accidents which poured tens to hundreds of tons of oil into the sea. The cases mostly occurred from March to June.
The Formosa One incident , for example, occurred in 2001 in Ganh Rai Bay of Ba Ria – Vung Tau province. The vessel collided into Petrolimex 01, causing a spill of 900 cubic meters of DO.
Waste from aquaculture, tourism
By the end of 2008, over 30,000 aquaculture facilities had been set up in coastal provinces, mostly located in Mekong Delta provinces, including Bac Lieu, Ca Mau, Soc Trang, Ben Tre and Tra Vinh.
The total area for aquaculture remains unchanged, while the intensity of shrimp hatchery crops has increased, worsening water pollution in coastal areas caused by feed and antibiotic residue. The use of toxic chemicals in fishing is also causing pollution.
The waste water from coastal areas, especially from tourism activities, is the main source, contributing one-fourth of total waste water of the country.
Waste from mining
The waste water from coal mines cause sedimentation, loss of aquatic resources and deterioration of water quality.
It is estimated that the waste water volume from coal mining sites is 25-30 million cubic meters a year with the pH level of 3.1-6.5, while the solid waste volume is up to 150 million cubic meters.
The residue grounds in Quang Ninh province, particularly ones near Ha Long and Bai Tu Long Bays, have had a serious impact on the area.
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